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Standards and Guidelines - Forensic Science Communications - January 2006

Standards and Guidelines - Forensic Science Communications - January 2006

January 2006 - Volume 8 - Number 1

Standards and Guidelines

Glass Refractive Index Determination

Scientific Working Group for Materials Analysis (SWGMAT)

July 2004, Correction

References | Bibliography

Some of the references and bibliographic entries in the SWGMAT guidelines published in the January 2005 issue of Forensic Science Communications contained errors. The following represents the corrected version of the references and bibliography, which also have been corrected in the journal’s January 2005 issue. Authors who have cited these works based on the previously published information should ensure that they now use the correct citations. The editors apologize for the errors.


Andrasko, J. and Maehly, A. C. The discrimination between samples of window glass by combining physical and chemical techniques, Journal of Forensic Sciences (1978) 23:250–262.

Cassista, A. R. and Sandercock, P. M. L. Precision of glass refractive index measurements: Temperature variation and double variation methods and the value of dispersion, Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal (1994) 27(3):203–208.

Dabbs, M. D. G. and Pearson, E. F. The variation in refractive index and density across two sheets of window glass, Journal of the Forensic Science Society (1970) 10:139–148.

Koons, R. D., Buscaglia, J., Bottrell, M., and Miller, E. T. Forensic glass comparisons. In: Forensic Science Handbook. 2nd ed. R. Saferstein, ed. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, Volume I, 2002, pp.161–213.

Locke, J. GRIM: A semi-automatic device for measuring the refractive index of glass particles, Microscope (1985) 33(3):169–178.

Locke, J. and Hayes, C. A. Refractive index variations across glass objects and the influence of annealing, Forensic Science International (1984) 26:147–157.

Reference Glasses and Silicone Oils for Refractive Index Determination. In: GRIM2 Manual, Locke Scientific. Hampshire, United Kingdom, 10.

Stoney, D. A. and Thornton, J. I. The forensic significance of the correlation of density and refractive index in glass evidence, Forensic Science International (1985) 29:147–157.


Brown, G. A. Factors affecting the refractive index distribution of window glass, Journal of Forensic Sciences (1985) 30:806–813.

Davies, M. M., Dudley, R. J., and Smalldon, K. W. An investigation of bulk and surface refractive indices for flat window glasses, patterned window glasses and windscreen glasses, Forensic Science International (1980) 16:125–137.

Foster and Freeman, Limited. Instrument Manuals for GRIM, GRIM2, and GRIM3. Foster and Freeman, Limited, Evesham, Worcestershire, United Kingdom.

Heideman, D. H. Glass comparisons using a computerized refractive index database, Journal of Forensic Sciences (1975) 20:103–108.

Lambert, J. A. and Evett, I. W. Refractive index distribution of control glass samples examined by the forensic science laboratories in the United Kingdom, Forensic Science International (1984) 26:1–23.

Locke, J. Improvements in the use of silicone oils for the determination of glass refractive indices, Journal of the Forensic Science Society (1982) 22:257–262.

Locke, J. and Underhill, M. Automatic refractive index measurements of glass particles, Forensic Science International (1985) 27:247–260.

Locke, J., Underhill, M., Russell, P., Cox, P., and Perryman, A. C. Evidential value of dispersion in the examination of glass, Forensic Science International (1986) 32:219–227.

Locke, J., Winstanley, R., Rockett, L. A., and Rydeard, C. A comparison of long and short schedules for the annealing of glass particles, Forensic Science International (1985) 29:247–258.

Ojena, S. M. and De Forest, P. R. Precise refractive index determination by the immersion method, using phase contrast microscopy and the Mettler hot stage, Journal of the Forensic Science Society (1972) 12:315–329.

Sandercock, P. M. L. Sample size considerations for control glass in casework, Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal (2000) 33(4):173–185.

Underhill, M. Multiple refractive index in float glass, Journal of the Forensic Science Society (1980) 20:169–176.

Zoro, J. A., Locke, J., Day, R. S., Badmus, O., and Perryman, A. C. An investigation of refractive index anomalies at the surfaces of glass objects and windows, Forensic Science International (1988) 39:127–141.